With the rise in ownership of computers and internet usage growing daily, the internet is fast becoming the primary port of call for information, shopping and services. In addition, those computer and internet users are increasingly from non-English speaking countries. At the end of 2002, it was estimated that 32% of internet users were non-native English speakers. This figure is constantly rising. In response, businesses have quickly become aware of the benefits of website localisation.
Website localisation is the process of modifying an existing website to make it accessible, usable and culturally suitable to a target audience. Website localisation is a multi-layered process needing both programming expertise and linguistic/cultural knowledge. If either is missing, the chances are that a localisation project will encounter problems.
In the majority of cases it is the lack of linguistic and cultural input that lets a website localisation project down. In order to give an insight into the impact culture has on website localisation the following examples depict areas in which a solid understanding of the target culture is necessary.
Language in Website Localisation
Translating a website from English into another language is not as simple as it may appear. There are numerous factors that have to be taken into consideration when translating a websites’ content.
Do all the words, phrases, sayings and metaphors translate directly to the target language? Would it be wise to translate the phrase “everyman for himself” in text describing a company or product if this is going to be read by a highly collectivist culture? Does the content of your website use humour and if so will the target culture appreciate or even understand it? Native alternatives should always be sought and used in any website localisation.
When translating into another language carefully consider the variants. If it is to be an Arabic website then is aimed at Tunisians or Iraqis, Egyptians or Yemenis? If you are targeting all Arabic speakers then ensure Modern Standard Arabic has been employed by your translator.
One must analyse the style of the language and the target audience. If the audience is foreign business personnel, the vocabulary, grammar and punctuation must reflect this. If the audience is informal or youth orientated then a more relaxed language must used. Just as we in the UK would identify the difference between a site using “posh English” and “street English”, other cultures will have the same perceptions of language. Using the wrong language for the wrong reader in your localisation project will lead to a misunderstanding of the site or company.
It is essential to assess what information is necessary to carry over into the new site. Do not assume that all information on the English site is automatically transferred over. One must evaluate the target culture and society. Is it a culture that relies on information rich writing to fully understand a concept or product or is a culture that relies more on images or one that needs little text to grasp ideas and concepts? If your English site employs a lot of technical language then consider how best to transfer these concepts without the use of language.
Pictures in Website Localisation
Images carry many subtle cultural messages within them. These can speak volumes about your company or product. Pictures or images may have certain negative connotations that may repel viewers. This is now an area that thankfully is receiving attention in website localisation.
For example, if a travel site in a Muslim populated country used pictures of scantily clad women in bikinis, disco dancing and beer drinking, the chances are that they would not be very successful.
When including pictures of personnel it is wise to tailor these to what the target audience will look positively upon. A picture of the Director behind a desk in an office will be fine for a seniority respecting society, but for an egalitarian society it is better to show the Director mixing with staff.
It is through pictures that websites can either relate to an audience or repel them.
Symbols in Website Localisation
As with pictures, symbols can cause problems in localisation. Icons using fingers such as an OK sign or V-sign may mean different things to different cultures. Our Western symbols do not always mean the same abroad. An oft cited example is the representation of the house referring to a home page, or a letterbox to mail. The use of animals in logos can cause embarrassment and further problems. For example, pigs are considered unclean in the Middle East and cows as holy in India.
Colours in Website Localisation
Colours are also loaded with cultural meanings that need to be analysed in website localisation. Choosing the wrong colour for your logo or background will not always have disastrous consequences, but avoiding them is always advisable.
For example, in Japan white is commonly associated with mourning. In China red is auspicious. In Africa certain colours represent different tribes.
Navigation in Website Localisation
It is even the most taken for granted aspects of website layout that must be analysed properly for a successful localisation project. In the West we assume that how we present websites is how it naturally should be done. This is far from the truth.
A common problem experienced in localisation is the effect on layout through translation. Foreign scripts can make your pages need more room or less room depending on the target language in the localisation. Not all languages read from left to right. Arabic is from right to left and both Japanese and Chinese are from top to bottom.
Access to certain pages is also a factor that can be considered as relevant. Highly hierarchical cultures may view a site positively if it is “member only” access, whereas an egalitarian culture may find it disagreeable.
Content in Website Localisation
Examining your written content in any localisation process in critical to its success. This is not only important for proper transfer of aspects such as dates, currencies, and units of measurement but for the presenting the correct image.
For example, will the site focus on a product or a company? Both bring with them certain considerations dependent on the target culture. If a company is marketing itself in a culture that respects seniority and hierarchy, readers will want to see information on senior members. Along with their titles and rank they will also want to evaluate them through information on their professional qualifications, experience and contacts. These areas in the UK may generally be avoided as in our culture it is bordering on self-indulgence and boasting.